The pedal tone is a note that persists while harmony changes. Sometimes the pedal is not part of the harmony. Pedal notes over tonic or dominant are common. In the following example, Bach establishes a dominant pedal tone. In the fifth measure, we find a chord that is not related to the G pedal tone: (F# - A - C - Eb):

We find pedal tones in middle and higher voices. Beethoven uses a B as a pedal tone in the middle voice of this passage:




  

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José Rodríguez Alvira.