Some of the most important systems for specifying the octave of a note are shown below:


  1. Helmholtz. Developed by Hermann von Helmholtz in 1863.
  2. English system.
  3. Italian system. It uses note names do-re-mi-fa-sol-la-si. The French system is the same but it uses ut instead of do.
  4. Scientific system.
  5. MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) system. 60 = middle C, 61 would be C# or Db, 62 = D, etc.


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José Rodríguez Alvira.