This minuet (binary form) in C minor offers an excellent example of modulation:

  1. The first modulation is to the relative major key (Eb major) at the end of section A. The ii degree of C minor is used as pivot chord (vii degree in Eb major) (measure 6). Diminished vii degree chords also have a dominant function, so the same chord is used in place of the Eb dominant, although you could say there is a dominant chord in the last beat of the measure (Eb in the bass and Bb in treble part).
  2. Section B starts in Eb major. A new modulation to F minor (measure 13) do not uses a pivot chord. The Eb dominant in measure 12 is followed by the vii degree of F minor (measure 13).
  3. In measures 17 to 23 a sequence takes us from F minor (the F minor chord is used as Eb major ii degree) to Eb major before returning to C minor in measure 21.

Gregorio Szames, piano. Recording courtesy of Piano Society and Gregorio Szames.


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José Rodríguez Alvira.