The most common modulations are modulations to closely related keys. There are several methods that we can use to find closely related keys.

In case of a major key, find the subdominant and dominant chords, their relative minor keys and the relative minor key of the main key:

In case of a minor key, find the subdominant and dominant chords, their relative major keys and the relative major key of the main key:

Finding the II to VI degree of a major key:

Finding the III to VII degree of a minor key:

Closely related keys are neighbors in the circle of fifths: